Major Contributors to Water Pollution in India

Untreated wastewater is responsible for polluting water resources

•      Small and medium plants do not invest in effluent s e.g., over 3,000 units in Ankleshwar, Gujarat discharge ~270 MM liters of effluents each day

•      Untreated domestic wastewater is reused for agriculture causing health hazards


Runoff from agricultural fields contains pesticides & fertilizers that pollutes surface water

•      Use of pesticides increased from ~1 MM tons in 1948 to 52 MM tons by 2001

•      47% of irrigated areas in India lie in the Ganges basin which contains chemicals such as HCH2DDT3, methyl malathion etc. in excess of international standards

•      Use of fertilizers in India has increased from 0.55 Kgs/hectare in 1950 to 90.12 Kgs/hectare in 2001–2002

•      High fertilizer use has led to eutrophication4in several water bodies, such as the Hussein Sagar in Hyderabad and Nainital in UP